About Us

People

Research Team

Daniel Toal

Daniel was born in Dublin in 1961. He is a chartered engineer qualified in both Electrical and Systems Engineering: (Hons Dip Elec Eng, Dublin Institute of Technology; BSc(eng) University of Dublin (TCD) 1984; MSc - Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, UK, 1986; PhD Marine Robotics, University of Limerick (UL) 2004). He has worked in the Electrical Power and High Voltage sector with GEC in Britain. He has worked in Automation Research and Systems Engineering including major systems engineering reorganization projects for JCB (the excavator manufacturer) and GEC in the UK. Daniel has worked in AMT consultancy in the electronics industry sector. Daniel is currently a senior lecturer at UL and has lectured for 20 years in: Automation, Robotics, Instrumentation, Avionics, Sensors, Electrical Machines. He is Course Director for BEng Robotics & Course Board member - UL BSc Energy. His research interests include: robotics, land-based and marine robots (both ROVs and AUVs), industrial robots, autonomous mobile vehicles, controller design, electronics and hardware, automation, sensor integration, motion control, Recent successes in Charles Parsons Energy Research Awards, HEA PRTLI 4- Environment & Climate Change, HEA PRTLI 3 Deep Ocean Habitat Mapping, IRCSET, Marine RTDI Measure and other funding (Marine Technology - Robotics & Ocean Energy) are the result of hard work driven by the vision that the Marine Technology & Renewable Energy Sector will grow in crucial importance. Daniel is the founder and director of the Mobile & Marine Robotics Research Centre from the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick.

Dan is an engineering researcher with significant track record in ocean engineering, sensor platforms, instrumentation, controls, marine vehicles and offshore operation areas over the last 10 years. He has demonstrated considerable skill in focused research and team building in the marine robotics technology arena, a space most relevant to Ireland as an Island nation but absent in the Irish University and industrial sector prior to his initiation of same.

He has built a strong team in marine technology (9 researchers at present) with commercial spin out progressing currently. He also leads UL initiatives in Environment and Climate Change research funded under PRTLI cycle 4.

His research is most relevant to off-shore operations and developments in renewable (and conventional oil and gas) ocean energy. His sensors, instrumentation and controls research skills are also very relevant to other renewable energy research domains: high altitude wind; off shore wind farms; energy storage system controls (pumped hydro, reflow batteries), instrumentation and controls for hydrogen production, second generation bio-fuels production plant, gasification, energy demand side management, load shedding, combined heat and power, and many more.

List of Publications

2009

  1. Thurman, E., Riordan J, Toal D, "Terrain-adaptive ping sequencing of UUV integrated multibeam echosounder and sidescan sonar systems", Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology, IMarEST, 2009. In review
  1. Thurman, E., J. Riordan, D. Toal, "Automated Adaptive Trigger Control of an ROV/AUV Payload Sonar Sensor", Research Letters in Electronics, Hindawi Publishing Corp, 2009. In review
  1. Thurman, E., Riordan J, Toal D, "Terrain-adaptive ping sequencing of UUV integrated multibeam echosounder and sidescan sonar systems", Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology, IMarEST, 2009. In review
  1. Toal D, Nolan S, Riordan J, Omerdic E and Marr S, A Flexible, Multi-Mode of Operation, High-Resolution Survey Platform for Surface and Underwater Operations, SUT Journal of Underwater Technology, In Print, publication issue Nov 09.
  1. Ahmad H, Young TM, Toal D, Omerdic E. Control allocation: A review", Progress of Aerospace Sciences (in review)
  1. Ahmad H, Young T M, Toal D, Omerdic E, Control law and control allocation design for B747-200 using LQR and active set method, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical, Part G  (in review)
  1. Riordan J, Toal D, Performance Optimised Reverberation Modelling for Real-Time Synthesis of Sidescan Sonar Imagery. In review, Submitted to the IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, In Print.  ISSN 0364-9059
  1. Marr S, Marr S, Toal D, ROV Latis, A New Smart Survey ROV,  Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol 4, No 1, 2009.
  1. Ahmad H., Fault Adaptation by Reconfiguring Flight Controls using Control Allocation, PhD Thesis, 2009.
  1. Smart ROVLATIS: From Design Concepts to Test Trials, Invited Plenary, IFAC 8th Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft (MCMC 2009). Guarujá, Brazil. Sept 2009l.
  1. Omerdic E, Toal D, Wallace J, Ibahimovic I,  Funnell C, Grehan A. Marine Monitoring Platforms: Paradigms for Development in Ireland. Book, Cambridge Scholars Publishing Ltd. In Print, 173 pages.
  1. Toal D, Omerdic E, Riordan J & Nolan S, Multi-Mode Operations Marine Robotic Vehicle - A Mechatronics Case Study, chapter 6 in “Mechatronics in Action”  Contributing editors: D Bradley and D Russell, Springer, London, In Print - August 2009.
  1. Horgan J and Toal D, Computer Vision Applications in the Navigation of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (Chapter 11),  in Underwater Vehicles, A. V. Inzartsev, Ed.: In-Tech, 2009, pp. 195-214
  1. E. Thurman, J. Riordan, D. Toal (2009), Multi-Sonar Integration and the Advent of Sensor Intelligence. In: Advances in Sonar Technology. : I-Tech Education and Publishing, 2009, pp. 151-164, Editor S R Silva, ISBN 978-3-902613-48-6
  1. Omerdic E, Toal D, Smart ROVLATIS: From Design Concepts to Test Trials, invited Plenary, IFAC 8th Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft (MCMC'2009). Guarujá, Brazil. Sept 2009.
  1. Ahmad, H., Nolan, S. and Toal, D. (2009), Parameters Identification of Micro-ROV, International Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSE) 8-10 September 2009, Coventry, UK, accepted..
  1. Horgan J., Flannery F, Toal D. (2009). Investigation of Vision in Near Seabed Navigation on New Smart ROVLATIS. IFAC 8th Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft (MCMC'2009). Guarujá, Brazil. Sept 2009, accepted.
  1. Flannery F, Riordan J, Toal D, GPU Acceleration of Realtime Sonar Simulation," U.S. HYDRO 2009, Norfolk, Virginia, May 11-14
  1. Horgan, J, Flannery F, Toal D. Towards Real Time Vision Based UUV Navigation Using GPU Technology, In proceedings of IEEE Oceans, Bremmen. 11 – 14 May 2009.
  1. Thurman E, Riordan J, Toal D, The Integrated Marine Acoustic Controller System, In proceedings of IEEE Oceans, Bremmen. 11 – 14 May 2009.
  1. UL Links – Spring/Summer 2009, Editorial feature on launch of new ROV and associated smart technologies developed by marine robotics Research Centre
  1. Hydro International BV – New ROV shines after weathering storm, April 2009 Issue.
  1. Hydro International BV – New Irish Smart Survey Platform, March 2009 Issue
  1. Marine Technology Reporter, U.S. New Smart Survey Platform, ROV/AUV Annual Issue March 2009
  1. Seascapes, Maritime Programme – for an Island Nation. Feature on Dock Testing of ROV Latis aboard the Shannon Foynes Port Company, Shannon One Multicat.  Demonstration of novel marine robot features and patented technology , Fri 3 July 2009.
  1. TG4 News Feature on launch of ROV Latis, Thursday 2 July 2009
  1. Seascapes, Maritime Programme – for an Island Nation. Feature on offshore testing with ROV Latis aboard the Research vessel Celtic Explorer, Fri 6 march 2009.

2008

  1. Nolan S P, Toal D, A Low Directivity Ultrasonic Sensor for Collision Avoidance and Station Keeping on Inspection-Class AUVs, IMarEST J of Marine Engineering & Technology Part A no AII. pp 41 – 51, 2008, ISSN 1476-1548
  1. PCT Patent Application No. PCT/IE 2008/00064: "A method and apparatus for determining the topography of a seafloor and a vessel comprising the apparatus", Riordan J, Toal D, Thurman E.
  1. Flexible Survey Platform that enables Off Shore Capabilities in Inshore Operations: Operations from the Beach to 1,000m, Invited paper at The 10th Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Showcase, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, 23-24 September, 2008
  1. Van de Ven P W J, Flanagan C, Toal D, Identification and Control of Marine Vehicles using Artificial Intelligence Techniques, A Novel Approach, Book Chapter in Artificial Intelligence: New Research, Editors: Randal B. Bernstein and Wesley N. Curtis, Novapublishers 2008.
  1. Toal D, International Conference Chair and Editor of Proceedings, Mechatronics 2008, IMechE Conference Series, Proceedings of the 11th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference, 23 – 25 June2008, University of Limerick, Ireland. Professional Engineering Publishing, Engineering Conferences Online (ECO). In review, 500+ pages
  1. Toal D, Nolan S, Riordan J, Omerdic E, Marr S, Flexible Survey Platform that enables Off Shore Capabilities in Inshore Operations: Operations from the Beach to 1,000m, Invited paper at The 10th Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Showcase, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, 23-24 September, 2008
  1. Ahmad H, Young T M, Toal D, Omerdic E. Centre of gravity movement as a redundant pitch attitude control in control allocation, AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conf, Aug 2008, Honolulu, Hawaii USA.
  1. Ahmad H, Young T M, Toal D, Omerdic E. Centre of gravity movement as a redundant pitch attitude control in control allocation, AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conf, Aug 2008, Honolulu, Hawaii USA.
  1. Horgan J, Riordan J, Toal D, Near Seabed Navigation of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Employing Vision Systems; Experimental Approaches, 11th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference (Mechatronics 2008), Limerick, Ireland, June 2008.
  1. Toal D, Omerdic E, Nolan S, Riordan J, Molnar L. A Flexible Multi-Mode of Operation Survey Platform for Surface and Underwater Operations, IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles (NGCUV 08'), Killaloe, Ireland, 8-10 April, 2008
  1. Omerdic E., Riordan J., Toal D., MPPT Ring – Multi-Purpose Platform Technologies for Subsea Operations (System Integration, Planning, Simulation, Training, Fault-Tolerant Control, Enhanced Operator Interface and Offline Analysis), IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles (NGCUV 08'), Killaloe, Ireland, 8-10 April, 2008.
  1. Horgan J, Riordan J, Toal D, Experimental Setups for Vision-Based Navigation of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles in Near Intervention Operations, IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles (NGCUV 08'), Killaloe, Ireland, 8-10 April, 2008.

2007

  1. Molnar, L, Omerdic E. and Toal D. (2007), Guidance, navigation and control system for the Tethra unmanned underwater vehicle, International Journal of Control, 80:7, 1050 - 1076
  1. Van de Ven PWJ, Johansen TA, Sørensen AJ, Flanagan C, Toal D, Neural network augmented identification of underwater vehicle models, J Control Engineering Practice, Elsevier, Vol 15/6 2007, pp 715-725.
  1. Nolan S P, A High Frequency Wide Angle of View Sensor for Short Range Collision Avoidance Applications on Intervention Class Underwater Vehicles, PhD Thesis, 2007.
  1. Ahmad A, Young T M,  Toal D, Omerdic E, Control allocation with actuator dynamics for aircraft flight controls, 7th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), September 2007, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
  1. Ahmad H, Young TM, Toal D, Omerdic E.  Compensation of jammed control surface of large transport aircraft by control reconfiguration. Control & Automation, 2007. MED '07. Mediterranean Conference on 27-29 June 2007 Page(s):1 – 6. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MED.2007.4433782
  1. Thurman, E., J. Riordan and D. Toal. Integrating Multiple Sensors for Optimal Seabed Surveying. IFAC CAMS ’07 Conference Proceedings, Bol, Croatia, September 2007.
  1. Horgan J, Toal D, Ridao P, Garcia R,  Real-Time Vision Based AUV Navigation System using a Complementary Sensor Suite, IFAC Conference on Control Applications in Marine Systems (CAMS'07). Bol, Croatia. Sept 2007.
  1. Omerdic E, Riordan J, Toal D, Easing Offshore Ops Through The Use Of Augmented Reality Support Tools, 9th Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Showcase, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Sept 2007.
  1. Molnar L, Toal D. .A Control System Development for Submersible Sea Cage System, IEEE Oceans 2007, Sept. 29 2007-Oct. 4 2007 Page(s):1 – 11  Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/OCEANS.2007.4449291
  1. Omerdic E, Toal D, Modelling of waves and ocean currents for real-time simulation of ocean dynamics, IEEE Oceans 2007, 18-21 June 2007, Aberdeen. Page(s):1 – 6. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/OCEANSE.2007.4302323
  1. Thurman E., Riordan J and Toal D. Automated Optimisation of Simultaneous Multibeam and Sidescan Sonar Seabed Mapping, , IEEE Oceans 2007, June 2007, Aberdeen,  Page(s):1 – 6, Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/OCEANSE.2007.4302324
  1. Toal D, Challenges of ROV system integration for deep water habitat mapping, MESH (Mapping European Seabed Habitats) Subtidal Workshop, 30 Jan 2007, Galway.

2006

  1. Riordan J., Performance Optimised Reverberation Modelling for Real-Time Synthesis of Sidescan Sonar Imagery, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick. PhD Thesis, 2006 (pdf).
  1. Molnar L., A Hybrid Control Architecture Development for the Guidance, Navigation, and Control of the Tethra Prototype Submersible Vehicle, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick. PhD Thesis, 2006 (pdf).
  1. Sousa R V, Inamasu R Y, Port A J V, Toal D, Flanagan C, Composition and coordination of reactive fuzzy behaviors for autonomous navigation of a mini-robot platform. In: P. E. Myiagi; E. Villani; Horikawa. (Org.). ABCM Symposium Series in Mechatronics. - ed. Rio De Janeiro: ABCM (In the Prelo), 2006, v. 2
  1. Horgan J, Toal D, Review of Machine Vision Applications in Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, IEEE 9th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics and Vision (ICARCV 06), Singapore, Dec 2006, Page(s):1 – 6
  1. Omerdic E, Riordan J, Molnar L, Toal D. Virtual Underwater Lab: Efficient Tool for System Integration & UUV Control Development,  7th IFAC MCMC, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2006.
  1. Horgan J, Toal D, Vision systems in the control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, 7th IFAC Conference on Manoeuvering and Control of Marine Craft (MCMC 2006), Lisbon, Portugal, September 2006.
  1. Riordan J, Omerdic E, Molnar L, Toal D, Real-Time Sonar Simulator Integrated with Vehicle Control and Navigation for Ocean-Floor Mapping Applications in Survey-Scale Environments,  7th IFAC MCMC, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2006. 
  1. Nolan S, Toal D, An Ultrasonic Sensor for Close Range Collision Avoidance on AUVs, 7th IFAC MCMC, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2006.
  1. Horgan J, MacGiollEáin C, Toal D, Working towards VAUV, Vision Controlled Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Mechatronics 2006, The 10th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference, Penn State Great Valley, Malvern, USA, June 2006.
  1. Shaw A, Al-Shamma’a A, Wylie S R, Toal D, Present investigations of electromagnetic waves propagations in water and sea water, SSC '06, IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies 2006, 7 - 10 Feb, Dublin. 
  1. Toal D, Omerdic E, Nolan S, Al-Shamma'a A, Intervention AUVs for permanent seabed observatories, addressing some of the key technical challenges, In proceedings of , SSC '06, IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies 2006, 7 - 10 Feb, Dublin. 
  1. Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A.I.; Wylie, S.R.; Toal, D.; Experimental Investigations of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Seawater, Microwave Conference, 2006. 36th European, 10-15 Sept. 2006 Page(s):572 – 575, Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/EUMC.2006.281456

2005

  1. Toal DJF, Flanagan C, Lyons WB, Nolan S and Lewis E, Proximal object and hazard detection for autonomous underwater vehicle with optical fibre sensors, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol 53, Iss 3-4, 2005, pp 214-229.  ISSN: 0921-8890
  1. Van de Ven PWJ, Flanagan C, Toal D. Neural network control of underwater vehicles, in: Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol 18, 2005, pp.533 - 47.
  1. Riordan J, Toal D, Towards Real-Time Simulation of the Sidescan Sonar Imaging Process.  In: WSEAS Transactions on Computers, Vol.4, Iss.2, February 2005. Pages 247-252.  ISSN 1109-2750.
  1. Van de Ven P., Identification and Control of Marine Vehicles using Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick. PhD Thesis, 2005 (pdf).
  1. Hayes J. A Robot Arm Control Technique for Autonomous Mobile Robots, UL, MEng Thesis, 2005.  
  1. Canniff A. “Pull to Position” A Method of Visual Servo Control for A Robotic Arm.UL, MEng Thesis, 2005.
  1. Grehan A, Wilson M, Guinan J, Riordan J, Molnar L, Omerdic E, Ullgren J,  Le Guilloux E,  Toal D & Brown C. ROV Investigations of Cold-Water Coral Habitats along the Porcupine Bank Margin, West Coast of Ireland.  3rd International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Science and Management, University of Miami, Nov 28-Dec 2, 2005, Miami, USA.
  1. Van de Ven PWJ, Hayes MJ, Flanagan C, and Toal D, On the identification and control of underwater vehicle dynamics: a neural network approach. Presented at Complexity Workshop, 16 Sept., '05 Maynooth Ireland. 
  1. Omerdic E, Toal D, Control allocation of over-actuated thruster propelled underwater vehicles, 1st NeCST Workshop, Networked Control Systems & Fault Tolerant Control, pp 163-171, 6-7 Oct 2005, Ajaccio, France.
  1. Molnar L, Omerdic E, Toal D, Design of an advanced AUV for deployment close to the seabed and other hazards,  IEEE Oceans '05 Europe Conference,  Brest, France, June 2005, ISBN; 0-7803-9104-7
  1. Sousa R V, Inamasu R Y, Porto AJV, Toal D, Flanagan C, Composition and coordination of reactive fuzzy behaviors for autonomous navigation of a mini-robot platform. 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, 2005, Ouro Preto - MG. 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, 2005.
  1. Nolan S, Toal D, Ewald H, A novel wideangle ultrasonic sensor utilizing a curved radiator developed for use in an AUV obstacle avoidance system, IEEE Oceans '05 Europe Conference,  Brest, France, June 2005.

2004

  1. Molnar L, Omerdic E, Van de Ven P, Toal D, Flanagan C, On the development of Tethra submersible vehicle for autonomous and remotely operated modes, WSEAS Transaction on Circuits and Systems, pp. 2454-2460, Issue 6, Vol 3,  August 2004, ISSN 1109-2777.
  1. Toal D, Flanagan C, Whisker sensors enable AUV deployment near hazards,  WSEAS Transactions on Computers, Issue 3, Vol 3, pp 759 - 765, July 2004,  ISSN 1109-2750
  1. Love T., The Development of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Test Platform Incorporating Active Buoyancy Control, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick. MEng Thesis, 2004 (pdf).
  1. Van de Ven P, Flanagan C, Toal D, Omerdic E. Identification and control of underwater vehicles with the aid of neural networks, 2004 IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS) and IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM),  Singapore, December 2004, pp 428 – 433
  1. Van de Ven P, Flanagan C, Toal D. Identification of underwater vehicle dynamics with neural networks,  In  Conference proceedings of Oceans ’04, Kobe, Japan, November 2004, pp 1198 – 1204.
  1. Van de Ven P, Flanagan C, Toal D, Omerdic E, Lyons W, Underwater vehicle model identification with the aid of neural networks,  Smart Engineering System Design, Proc. of the Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering (ANNIE 2004) Conf., pp. 559-64, St. Louis,  Missouri, USA, Nov 2004.
  1. Molnar L, Omerdic E, Van de Ven P, Toal D, Flanagan C, On the development of Tethra submersible vehicle for autonomous and remotely operated modes,  4th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Robotics, Distance Learning and Intelligent, Communication Systems - ICRODIC 2004, Izmir, Turkey, September 13-16, 2004, pp 489 - 497.
  1. Toal D, Flanagan C. and Hayes J,  Equipping autonomous underwater vehicles with manipulators, 3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Sept, 2004 Sydney. Invited paper - special session on Marine Robotics.
  1. Van de Ven, P, Johansen TA, Sorensen A, Flanagan C and Toal D. Neural network augmented identification of underwater vehicle models, IFAC Conference on Control and Applications in Marine Systems (CAMS '04), Ancona, Italy, July 2004.
  1. Nolan S, Toal D, Flanagan C, Sensor system approaches to provide perspacity in AUV object detection, 11th Symposium Maritime Elektrotechnik, Electronik und Informationstechnik, pp 107-110, Rostock. June 2004
    .
  1. Riordan J, Toal D, Flanagan C, Development of a sidescan sonar simulation model, 11th Symposium Maritime Elektrotechnik, Electronik und Informationstechnik, pp115-118, Universität Rostock. June 2004.
  1. Molnar L, Toal D, Flanagan C, Hayes M. The Tethra autonomous underwater vehicle platform: system description and controller development. Advances in technology for underwater vehicles (ATUV). Two-day international conference at Oceanology '04 London, UK.
  1. Toal D, Flanagan C, Whisker sensors enable mini AUV deployment near hazards, 3rd WSEAS Int.Conf. on Signal Processing, Robotics and Automation (ISPRA 2004), Salzburg Austria. ISBN: 960-8052-95-5.

2003

  1. Flanagan C, Toal D & Leyden M, Subsumption and fuzzy logic, experiments in behaviour-based control of mobile robots. International J of Smart Engineering Systems Design, Vol 5, Issue 3, pp 161-175, 2003. Taylor & Francis ISSN 1025-5818 print/1607-8500 online.
  1. Nolan S., The Development of Testbed Vehicles For Underwater Systems Testing and AUV Controller Experimentation, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick. MEng Thesis, 2003 (pdf).
  1. Van de Ven P, Flanagan C and Toal D. Artificial intelligence for the control of underwater vehicles, In: Smart Engineering System Design, Proc. of the Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering (ANNIE 2003) Conf., pp. 559-64, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 2-5 November 2003.
  1. Dooly G, Toal D, Lewis E, Lyons W, An optical fibre sensor for underwater proximity measurement, Institute of Physics Series in Sensors, Proc. Sensors and Their Applications XII, 2003,  pp 511-517,  IOP publishing, S&A XII Limerick, ISBN 0-7503-0978-4.
  1. Hayes J, Toal D, Flanagan C, Robot arm control approach for an autonomous mobile robot such as an AUV,  4th International Conference on Industrial Automation, 9-11 June 2003, Montréal.
  1. Nolan S, Love T, Molnar L, Toal D and Flanagan C, A submersible robot test-bed implemented for autonomous controller development, Irish Signals and Systems Conference 2003,  pp. 458-463, June 2003, Limerick. ISBN 0-9542973-1-8.
  1. Love T, Toal D, Flanagan C, Buoyancy control for an autonomous underwater vehicle.  Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles 2003, pp199-204, IFAC Workshop, Newport, UK, April 9-11 2003, ISBN 0-08-044202-1.
  1. Nolan S., Molnar L., Toal D., Flanagan C., "Implementing a layered control architecture on an open framed AUV".  In:  Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles 2003: Proceedings of the IFAC Workshop, Newport, UK, April 9-11 2003,    Eds. G. Roberts, R. Sutton & R. Allen, Elsevier 2003, pp 61-66, ISBN 0-08-044202-1 (pdf).
  1. Hayes J., Toal D., Flanagan C., "Development and implementation of robot arm control for an autonomous mobile robot such as an AUV",  Proc. ICSE 2003 16th International Conference on Systems Engineering, Vol 1,   pp 237-242, Coventry University,   ISBN 0-905949-91-9 (pdf).
  1. Van de Ven, P, Flanagan C.,  and Toal D.  “Artificial intelligence for the control of underwater vehicles”, In: Smart Engineering System Design, Proc. of the Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering (ANNIE 2003) Conf., pp. 559-64, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 2-5 November 2003 (pdf).
  1. Nolan S., Molnar L., Toal D., Flanagan C., "Implementing a layered control architecture on an open framed AUV".  In:  Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles 2003: Proceedings of the IFAC Workshop, Newport, UK, April 9-11 2003,    Eds. G. Roberts, R. Sutton & R. Allen, Elsevier 2003, pp 61-66, ISBN 0-08-044202-1 (pdf).
  1. Nolan S., Love T., Molnar L., Toal D. and Flanagan C., “A submersible robot test-bed implemented for autonomous controller development”, Proc. Irish Signals and Systems Conference 2003’,  pp. 458-463, June 2003, Limerick. ISBN 0-9542973-1-8 (pdf).
  1. Nolan S., Love T., Molnar L., Toal D. and Flanagan C., “A submersible robot test-bed implemented for autonomous controller development”, Proc. Irish Signals and Systems Conference 2003’,  pp. 458—463, June 2003, Limerick. ISBN 0-9542973-1-8 (pdf).
  1. Riordan J., Toal D., Young T., "Development of a low cost fixed base flight simulator", Proc. ICSE 2003, 16th International Conference on Systems Engineering, Vol 2,   pp 586-590, Coventry,   ISBN 0-905949-91-9 (pdf).

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